Music: Specialized to Integrate?


  • Paulo Est Andrade Laboratory of Investigation of Learning Deviations (LILD), Faculty of Philosophy and Sciences, S
  • Joydeep Bhattacharya Goldsmiths, University of London



predictive coding, imagery, action, perception, universality


In her paper Schaefer (2014) provides a relevant amount of behavioral and neuroimaging evidence within and outside the realm of music favoring the notion that predictive processing plays a prominent role in the coupling of perception, cognition and action and, further, that imagery and active perception are closely associated to each other. Central to this review is that research into music imagery is exceptionally suitable and informative since prediction has a prominent role in music processing. In this commentary we suggest that it could be useful to investigate the role of working memory in this context since imagery and memory are inextricably associated processes. In addition to neuroimaging we also highlight that anthropological and developmental evidence could be relevant in showing that music is possibly unique in the coupling of perception, cognition and action. However, we believe that more cautions are needed on the author’s assumption that perception and interpretation of music is uniquely determined by listening biography of the listener.




How to Cite

Andrade, P. E., & Bhattacharya, J. (2015). Music: Specialized to Integrate?. Empirical Musicology Review, 9(3-4), 183–192.